Sintesi del contributo pubblicato in “L’Italia che comunica in digitale” a cura di Livio Gigliuto  – Bonanni Editore

 

Acqua, luce, gas e rifiuti: i servizi di pubblica utilità. Quelli di uso quotidiano, dei quali non ci accorgiamo se non nel momento in cui vengono a mancare.

Servizi universali, complessi, da garantire a tutti i cittadini, da regolare e da assicurare con continuità, che rappresentano la tessitura sotterranea delle nostre città (cavi, tubi e condotte) o la loro immagine superficiale (rifiuti e trasporti). Servizi che arrivano a rappresentare il simbolo del grado di civiltà di un Paese. In questo particolare settore l’innovazione e la digitalizzazione hanno un significato ben più ampio dello schermo del nostro smartphone.

Il telecontrollo delle reti idriche consente di individuare perdite a chilometri di distanza o di verificare istante per istante la qualità di quello che beviamo; le riprese satellitari e i droni permettono di individuare zone con risorse idriche sotterranee o con discariche abusive; la gestione informatica delle reti consente la continuità nella verifica dell’energia disponibile; il cablaggio con la fibra ottica apre l’accesso a servizi fino a dieci anni fa impensabili; sensori collegati agli operai che lavorano sottoterra monitorano in tempo reale la loro salute e  – infine  – sale di controllo centralizzate, collegate con le loro omologhe in Europa, misurano in tempo reale l’energia che proviene da oltre confine o il gas che viaggia attraverso il mare.

L’applicazione diffusa della comunicazione digitale, attraverso lo scambio costante di dati e informazioni anche con gli utenti, ha introdotto un cambiamento radicale della gestione aziendale e del rapporto con i cittadini.

Anche nelle utilities il cittadino è oggi al centro di un processo aziendale, perché ha contribuito con le proprie crescenti esigenze a fissare nuovi obiettivi per le aziende e per le istituzioni.

Internet, mail, social network e app hanno mutato il nostro modo di relazionarci con i servizi pubblici e al tempo stesso hanno dato indicazioni alle aziende sui percorsi da intraprendere.

Sembra incredibile oggi che l’unico modo per pagare una bolletta fosse quello di mettersi in fila in un ufficio postale. Ci troveremmo disorientati se per avere le informazioni su come effettuare una voltura di una utenza non avessimo a disposizione delle pagine web o un numero verde da chiamare. Per non parlare della mobilità in sharing, dei certificati amministrativi o delle prenotazioni in campo sanitario.

La dimestichezza con gli strumenti di comunicazione digitale e la presenza di infrastrutture hanno però declinazioni territoriali, sociali e anagrafiche, che possono arrivare ad inficiare il principio di universalità dei servizi pubblici.

La diffusione capillare dei servizi pubblici – che ormai si può dire realizzata se consideriamo che sono davvero poche le zone del nostro Paese in cui non arrivano l’accagency.itcqua, l’energia, il gas – deve essere accompagnata dal superamento di un divario digitale, se si vuole garantire l’universalità di accesso.
Al pari degli investimenti infrastrutturali, saranno probabilmente utili o necessarie, campagne di  alfabetizzazione digitale.

Appare evidente come una dimestichezza nell’utilizzo di pagine web, nella navigazione di portali o nell’attivazione di particolari servizi previsti dalla pubblica amministrazione (come il Sistema Pubblico di Identità Digitale, SPID) diventi ogni giorno più utile ad esercitare i propri diritti di cittadino.

Se non addirittura un problema di democrazia, la diversa alfabetizzazione digitale può divenire un problema di parità.

Considerazioni che   – dal punto di vista della Comunicazione – inducono riflessioni anche per il futuro, per la scelta dei messaggi e dei mezzi di comunicazione.

Come comportarsi nei confronti di coloro che non riusciamo a raggiungere con la comunicazione digitale e con i servizi ad essa collegata?

L’acqua e l’energia sono servizi da garantire a chiunque e ovunque. Lo devono essere anche le funzioni di supporto contrattuale o i servizi collaterali?

È evidente quale sia la direzione del progresso e dello sviluppo, ma come regolare il transitorio?

Le differenze culturali e sociali esistono da sempre e sono amplificate, purtroppo, da differenze geografiche e dalle caratteristiche dei centri urbani o delle aree rurali in cui si vive.

Anche le differenze generazionali caratterizzano da sempre la capacità di utilizzo delle novità, ma come articolare una campagna di comunicazione sul diritto di accesso ai servizi digitali?

Dobbiamo dire ai nonni di farsi aiutare dai nipoti a navigare sui portali informativi o piuttosto sviluppare portali informativi e tecnologie che siano immediatamente fruibili anche dagli anziani?

Una domanda che richiede una risposta dinamica, mutevole e adattiva. La soluzione che scegliamo oggi potrebbe non essere più utile tra cinque anni.

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